Periodization in training is a method that has been popular since the 60-ies of the XIX century, many bodybuilders and powerlifters. Why is there a large demand for this technique and what is its essence? Let’s deal.
To achieve the goals athletes often use the periodization of the training process. Its essence lies in the change in the level of load and operating weight after a certain period of time. As a result, the muscles do not adapt to training the same type of process that gives the best results. This method is suitable for advanced athletes who, despite their quality and functional exercise, face muscle stagnation.
Circular type of training is quite common among bodybuilders, despite the fact that today there is a perception about lack of effectiveness.
Main types of the training process
The most popular type of periodization is a classic or linear. It implies a change in the volume of exercise in the designated periods.
The first of these steps is a training session, it takes less time. During this period, the bodybuilder reach their goals, most often it is muscle building or strengthening muscles.
The next stage is represented by a microcycle, which consists of several training sessions, usually from two to six. The exercise thus aims at development of all muscular groups. Pumping muscles is performed, either in parallel or in sequence. The athlete needs to put new goals and determine the level of the load and operating weights. There are two types of this period of shock and recovery. At first the muscles relax, and the second is their intense download.
The mesocycle is another phase of linear periodization, which consists of several microcycles. The main goal is considered to be the process of weight loss and the subsequent recruitment of muscle mass. Like the previous period, the mesocycle is of two types – cognitive and adaptive. The first one is used when returning the athlete to the loads after a long break. The second type is more common among beginners who are just used to the workload.
Planning in the long term is called a macrocycle. This period consists of several mesocycles, and is often used by athletes when preparing for competition or simply lovers to bring your body in desired shape.
At the initial stage of the process of strength training is based on the mesocycles, but if we talk about an advanced level of physical training, in this case, there is a need of alternating light and heavy stress during a 12-month macrocycle.
Programs of training among bodybuilders preparing for competitions involve the achievement of the goal by the time of them. The macrocycle in this case consists of three stages – preparatory, competitive and transition.
In this type of planning should take into account that the method of periodization lies in the parallel development of these cycles. As a result of not adhering to this rule this kind of training will lose their benefits as there will be no periods for recuperation after intense exertion. This happens due to the fact that the recovery phase is one of the cycles, the load in the other increases.
Kinds of periodisations
The first and most common type of linear or classical periods. It is based on the change in load intensity and amount of exercise. The training process is planned for the year (the macrocycle) and consists of two or more mesocycles with an average duration of three to four months. Mesocycles in turn are divided into micro-cycles with duration from one to four weeks. A classic example of the build mesocycle a bodybuilder when preparing for a competition is such a scheme: a set of muscle mass, increase muscle, “drying” and study the terrain.
The next type of periodization – nonlinear, or undulating. It is more frequent change of the load intensity and amount of exercise, it may be once a week or once in a couple of weeks. It is also important to note the constant alternation of light and heavy training that promotes the recovery of muscle system.
The most important is to focus on one parameter during each phase, and training for the rest if it aimed only at maintaining the existing form.
How long restored the body?
To achieve maximum results from the training process each athlete must rest the body. After high intensity exercise the muscle fibers need time to recover. At constant loads without rest the body begins the process of metabolic collapse that leads not to the desired process of breakdown of fats and burning of the accumulated muscle mass.
The microcycle aimed at restoring is a significant decrease in physical activity or its complete absence. Substitute for hard training, easy in this case can lead to complete exhaustion of the organism. The main goal of the recovery phase is to rest before the high-intensity load. The optimal time interval from one to two weeks, causing the muscles in training are in a state of stress, which leads to their intense growth.