The group of B vitamins includes eight different compounds. One of them is thiamine. The majority of it is known as vitamin B1. The substance responsible for the metabolic processes, growth, development and normal functions of the digestive system, heart muscle and nervous system. Its deficiency is dangerous for the body. Without enough thiamine disrupted systems and organs and the person becomes susceptible to serious nervous disorders.
Vitamin B1 plays an important role in the body, which is not known to everyone. To appreciate the benefits of this connection, you need to consider all its features, consequences of periodic and systematic disadvantage, and in what products contains most of the thiamine.
- Functions of vitamin B1 (thiamine)
- The value of thiamine for athletes
- The daily requirement
- The consequences of thiamine deficiency
- What foods contain vitamin B1
Functions of vitamin B1 (thiamine)
Vitamin B1 is an organic compound. It is not soluble in alcohol, but dissolves in water. The substance can occur in four different forms. Thiamine diphosphate refers to the most common in the human body. In body tissues (primarily in muscle) can accumulate about 30 grams of this compound.
Thiamin performs the following functions in humans:
- directly involved in carbohydrate, protein, fat metabolism;
- involved in the synthesis of ATP — energy required to implement cellular processes;
- promotes the transition of carbohydrates into glucose, which the organism requires for activity;
- promotes the breakdown is coming along with carbohydrates and fats;
- helps to form functional blood cells;
- promotes proper growth and development of systems and organs;
- is responsible for the normal functioning of the digestive system;
- normalizes heart function;
- protects the nervous system from stress factors as involved in the formation of nerve endings myelin sheath that protects cells from damage;
- increases the protective functions of the body;
- improves nutrient absorption by maintaining the tone of smooth muscles in the digestive system;
- positive effect on the nervous Central system, and the lack of this connection leads to negative consequences for cognitive abilities;
- responsible for the proper condition of the organs of vision.
Thiamine is often called the anti-stress vitamin, which fully reflects its essential role for human body. Apathy on the background of the lack of this substance develops because of General fatigue and weakness, which leads to depression.
The value of thiamine for athletes
Thiamine is one of the key nutrients for bodybuilders and athletes involved in other disciplines. This vitamin is a direct participant in synthesis of protein from food, and without the protein can not be normal growth of muscle tissue. Athletes wishing to pump up good muscles, should eat as protein food, and to control the quantity of vitamin B1 in the body together with products. Thiamine deficiency leads to disruption of the process of transporting oxygen to muscle tissues.
This will lead to reduction of strength and endurance that has a negative impact on physical activities. To avoid adverse effects, athletes need to take care of additional intake of thiamine bromide and other varieties of this vitamin. Because of this, performance during exercise increases dramatically. No side effects to the body similar supplements have not.
The daily requirement
The norm varies with age, lifestyle, and sex:
- young children enough of 0.2-0.9 mg in different years of life;
- women and 1.1, and during pregnancy and lactation — 1.5 mg;
- men and from 1.2 to 2.5 mg;
- athlete and engaged in physical hard work of adults (gender doesn’t matter) — 2,5-3 mg.
Deficiency of this vitamin is necessary to the doctor. The specialist will determine the dose and form of drug that should be taken.
The consequences of thiamine deficiency
A large number of products consumed by human beings contain thiamine, but its lack is quite common. The deficit is temporary, and systematic. In the latter case, develop severe disorders, especially nervous.
The disease beriberi, is typical for many regions with poor living conditions and frequent lack of food, on the background of deficiency of thiamin characterized by weakness and atrophy of muscle tissue, weight loss and violations of intellectual level, the level of development of pathologies of the digestive system and the heart, and paralysis.
Another form of this disease is Korsakoff’s syndrome, but it develops most often in those who suffer from alcoholism, which contributes to the decrease of thiamine in the body. The progression of the disease is the cause of irreversible brain damage — cognitive impairment and memory. To save the patient, only the timely detection of problems and treatment, when injected into the body different dosage forms of thiamine, including hydrochloride, until the investment.
Periodic deficiency in adults less dangerous, but also has negative consequences, can become systematic. The main symptoms of deficiency are disturbances in the cardiovascular and digestive systems, as well as atrophy of muscle tissue. In childhood the lack of thiamine causes a delay in physical development.
People living in favourable conditions, can eat varied and balanced. Regardless, a lack of thiamine is not uncommon. In the early stages of the deficiency is diagnosed much rare, but even when the periodic drawback has been a few years, the situation can be corrected.
To recognize a shortage of allow for the following symptoms:
- frequent shortness of breath;
- constant feeling of fatigue and depressed feeling of hunger;
- loss of concentration and frequent forgetfulness;
- constipation and nausea;
- tingling sensation in the extremities;
- depression, apathy, which are replaced by irritability.
The constant lack of substance leads to deterioration and more dangerous consequences. Experts advise not to bring up such and revise your diet, including menu products, having in its composition a lot of vitamin B1. If the condition is severe, it is better to resort to the intake of thiamine chloride and other medicines.
Thiamine is not always enters the body in the quantities that is available in raw or fresh foods. Part of the substance is lost during prolonged heat treatment, as well as adding a large amount of salt. In the digestive system vitamin is destroyed by alcohol, tea, coffee. So if you have a deficit it is better to completely abandon these drinks.
Excess vitamin is also bad for the body. Overdose often happens after the use of pharmaceutical drugs without adherence to dosages and prescriptions. If the number of incoming thiamine exceeds the daily norm, people suffer from insomnia, causeless fear, allergic reactions, including how easy the hives, and anaphylactic shock.
What foods contain vitamin B1
Thiamin is found in many foods, but the greatest number are present in:
- barley and oats;
- hazelnuts, peanuts, almonds, pistachios;
- sunflower seeds;
- green vegetables, herbs;
- bell pepper;
- legumes (lentils, beans, peas);
- the liver;
- brewer’s yeast.
These products are a must in the daily menu. This is especially true for those people who are involved in sports. And if you noticed the first signs of thiamine deficiency, you should immediately contact a doctor.