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The 5 most harmful types of fitness according to doctors

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fitness, lifestyle, editor’s choice
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The 5 most harmful types of fitness according to doctors

The contents

  • 1. The power of the program
  • 2. Fitness at the gym
  • 3. Running
  • 4. Men’s and women’s soccer
  • 5. Stretching

Often the race for a slim figure turns to health problems. Fitness can how to treat, and maim: reasonable physical exercise strengthens muscles, strengthens, increases the tone of the body; uncontrolled the load, not always a conscious approach to the choice of programs, wrong technique of exercise can result in injury, damage to knee joints, problems with the spine. Consider what types of fitness are most harmful, and find out the opinion of doctors on this matter.

1. The power of the program

Gym is one of the most effective ways to make your body fit. Often newcomers in the pursuit of relief body begin to do the deadlift, lunges or squats with weights, watching training videos online, and fearlessly choose the load, permissible only to experienced athletes. The result — problems with the lower back and knees, the displacement of the vertebrae, the stretching of the muscles.

Too much weight and improper technique exercises — the biggest danger that lies in wait for beginners in the gym.

So squats is the most effective but difficult exercise that beginners should perform only under supervision of a coach. One of the most common mistakes — the rise from the squat with a barbell with a round back, which is fraught with problems with the loin.

At risk are the knees, and the danger here is that the problem makes itself known immediately, but after some time. Here an important role is played by the weight — it should be commensurate with your physical condition and experience. Due to too much weight when you squat the knees are often “looking” inward, whereas they should be directed to the same place and socks. Otherwise — problems with the joints.

Squats can also aggravate the situation in the presence of varicose veins.


If you are not sure that you perform exercises correctly, it is better not use the weights. Start training with weight only when technique is perfected without it.

2. Fitness at the gym

On the one hand simulators — the fastest way to “pump” and “pump” is what you need. On the other hand, it is fraught with health problems. So, during the bench platform can contribute to the destruction of the knee joint, if properly perform the exercise and loading of the joint. The same applies to lower back that suffers during execution of the bench press if not pressed firmly against the back of the station.

Another example — exercise hyperextension performed on a simulator for the development of the back muscles, hip flexors and gluteal muscles. This simulator (it is possible to do in the gym and at home) is extremely effective, but is fraught with problems with the loin. This is due to incorrect technique of exercise (too large a deflection angle when climbing) and using weight.

3. Running

Jogging is known as one of the best workouts for the prevention of cardiovascular disease. And at the same time he has a bad fame, as a form of exercise that injures your knees. True, both statements. Running is useful, if correctly calculate the load and train intelligently.

Review expertRoman E. Fry, sports medicine physician, dietician

— What kind of exercise is useful for a person and what is harmful?

Physical activity can be both beneficial and hazardous to health. The effect depends on the intensity and duration of exercise. One kind of physical activity prolongs life, the other shortens. Excessive physical activity reduced the life of mice in studies of cross-country wheel. The load was equivalent to the long races (marathons and premaratne). Everyone knows that professional athletes and bodybuilders often die from cardiovascular complications. This is due to increased cardiac muscle.

Overuse too much strains the heart muscle and can cause irreversible changes. Regular overload of the heart muscle leads to hypertrophy (increased thickness) of the muscular wall. Muscles grow faster than blood vessels. As a result, the heart muscle suffers a lack of blood supply that can lead to heart failure, heart attack, arrhythmia.

The payload is 150 minutes per week with an intensity of 60-85% of your maximum heart rate. Terms of life extension and longevity, the most useful low-intensity loads. Low-intensity load delay aging of the immune system, reduce the risk of cancer and dementia, causing positive changes in the vessel walls and heart muscle. The range of positive changes is not limited to the above-mentioned changes. Studies show that low-intensity aerobic exercise delays the onset of disability from old age at 16 years.

The only problem is that few performs low-intensity load correctly. Most people understand it literally, and conduct training at too low intensity. For example, go walking. The effect of low intensity are also small. That’s the reason I developed the low-intensity interval training (NIIT), where walking alternated with light Jogging.

A useful form of exercise are EMS-training. This type of load can be carried out at a low intensity, even in the passive form without any loss of quality muscles without large stress on the joints. The device stimulates the skeletal muscles and relieves stress on the heart muscle, thereby preventing negative effects on the heart.

Running for an untrained person bodily injury, which is different. For example, the so-called “runner’s knee” is the most common injury in athletes. Manifested by pain in the area kolokolenka cups, which increases with squatting, climbing stairs. The pain may not always occur, and, for example, after you run through a certain distance. Then you need to reduce the distance.

Due to the peculiarities of the structure of the foot can occur injuries of the tibia. Trauma manifests a dull pain in this area, which could increase during the run. The reason for this may be running on a hard surface, too rapid an increase in distance run, the wrong choice of sports shoes.

Due to running on uneven terrain may be inflammation of the Achilles tendon that presents with pain in the heel area; run up the hill and on a hard surface — the inflammation of the plantar fascia.

All of the above does not mean you have to abandon the run. To run went you good, choose good shoes — it must be of high quality sports shoes with sufficient cushioning and flexible soles. Avoid running on concrete surfaces, on uneven surfaces, running volumes increase slowly, gradually prepare yourself to increase the distance of your run.


If you want the run was very good, purchase a heart rate monitor — it will help you to monitor their performance and choose the correct rhythm of running.

4. Men’s and women’s soccer

Football is not only the most popular sport among men, but also the most traumatic. Particularly affected are the legs because of the bruises that players get during the game. There are often injuries of the knee, especially in women, who are more vulnerable to them.

5. Stretching

The benefits of stretching are obvious is to improve the elasticity of muscles, tendons and ligaments, increase strength and endurance of the muscles, alignment, posture, coordination of movements.

However, stretching can harm health. Primarily, this is due to crossing results. Often fashionable programs that promise to teach you to do the splits in ten workouts, but if a person has a natural flexibility is not stretched, these accelerated programs can result in serious injury.

Another danger from the stretching associated with the stretching of muscles that do not stretch. For example, the extensors of the back. And because of overstretched muscles starting to lose hold of the joints. Someone because of the wrong equipment begins to stretch the fingers, and it is fraught with serious joint problems.

During stretching (we are talking about the wrong technique) can not stretch the muscles and ligaments that may result in long recovery. Very vulnerable while stretching and knee joints.


In fitness there are no directions that could be called harmful as such (we’re not talking in this case about extreme sports). Speaking about the dangers of fitness, meant the harm that can cause improper technique, lack of consultation with competent expert (it is the coaches and sports doctors), excessive load. To minimize the risks, you must:

— to consult with a specialist in sports medicine before you take out a subscription to the gym;

— first time training with a competent trainer;

is training adequate for their level of training mode, not to force, not work with too much weight;

— to prevent pain and not to train through the pain.

Review expertYuri K. Glazkov, candidate of medical science, traumatologist-orthopedist, a member of ESSKA, AAOS, ACTOR, ATOR

Getting into training many people don’t always think about the fact that physical activity can bring health not only benefits but also harm. Among the dangerous types of fitness include strength program, callanetics, exercises for joints and exercises with fitball.

The power of the program involve high-intensity workouts using weights — they load the joints. When properly chosen weight can damage the lower back or earn a sprain.

Callanetics is a system of stretching muscles. All movements are slow, without jerks. However, in kallanetika there are many awkward static postures. An untrained woman can fall, pull a muscle, ligament or twist an ankle.

Gymnastics for joints are useful, but dangerous. You need to engage with caution, under the supervision of a trainer, otherwise you can damage the muscles and ligaments.

Exercises with fitball is often carried out by women with excess weight. With this the ball can fall. It should be noted that an improperly chosen size increases the stress on the joints.

Some of the machines and exercise traumatic for the joints: extension, pinch the legs in the simulator; bench — platform legs, barbell from behind the head, French, rotation of the housing and the reduction of arms in the simulator; twisting with the turn to the side, hyperextension Roman bench.

Review expertAlexander Bonin, doctor of physical therapy and sports medicine, fitness trainer of the international class

Almost any type of fitness can be both beneficial and harmful. It will depend more on how prepared the person is to a particular exercise.

Also a significant role in the harmfulness or usefulness of any kind of fitness plays a proper technique of the exercise and the difficulty level of the load. For example, if not complied with the correct technique, even the most simple Jogging would be harmful.

If you look at the types of fitness from the point of view of a beginner, the most harmful and inappropriate are the following:

  • Crossfit

This kind of strength training high intensity, where almost every exercise works the whole body. Training aimed at enhancing endurance, strength, coordination, and weight loss.

To do crossfit safely, you have to be physically prepared and possess impeccable technique perform basic exercises.

If a person is not able to correctly perform the exercise, slow-paced, does not feel the target muscles, control your body, then this first you need to learn.

If at this level, immediately go into training crossfit, you can get a large overload of the spine and joints, as well as to injuries of ligaments and tendons.

This direction gives a large enough load on the cardiovascular system, which is especially important to consider if there are any problems from this side. Hypertension, tachycardia, angina, arrhythmias, problems with heart valves will all be a contraindication to crossfit.

If there are no contraindications, in any case, you first need to prepare yourself for these workouts and start doing lighter aerobic physiologic loads.

  • Running

Running may be harmful exercise, if not complied with correct technique and are there any precautions. The latter include any problems with the joints and the spine, as there is a constant shock that may provoke the deterioration and progression of the problem.

A contraindication will be to run the obesity of the first degree and above, as this will add excessive load not only on the musculoskeletal system during running, but also on the cardiovascular system.

If the person in advance not specifically study the correct technique of running, and spontaneously begins to run, it creates uneven the harmful impact on ankle and knee joints and on the lumbar spine.

This will increase the risk of osteoarthritis and degenerative disc disease, the negative impact will fall most of all articular cartilage and intervertebral discs.

Review expertEkaterina Alayev, head of the rehabilitation Department of Clinical and diagnostic research center “SMRC preventive medicine”, cardiologist, sports medicine physician, candidate of medical Sciences

Fitness is very popular now. People from 20 to 60 years passionate about this direction and strive to get to the gym, that can not but rejoice, however, in most cases, ignore one simple rule: before starting the training it is necessary to consult a doctor in exercise therapy and sports medicine to determine what types of fitness and how intensely you can engage in to maintain or improve your physical condition and not to cause harm. Unfortunately, the media, a huge number of Internet resources to create the illusion of understanding the training process and its simplicity, which is why supporters of the HLS does not appeal even to the fitness instructor, attempt to engage in those areas that interest them, and pick up his own load.

The last time we were drawn quite a lot of patients with injuries sustained as a result of exercising in the fitness club. Depending on the margin of the body “Amateur” sports Braves from 2-3 to 6 months of resistance training, and then it turns out at the reception of my colleagues — neurologists, orthopedists or surgeons with complaints of pain in the neck, lower back, knee or ankle joints, etc. If the goal was to lose weight, a cardiologist with elevated blood pressure and more weight than at the start. And only after the course of treatment comes to rehab where the doctor in physical therapy and sports medicine describes the recovery mode and further loads. It turns out that the desire to become healthier, visiting room, turns against the poor sportsman.

What are the types of fitness can lead to such tragic consequences?

One time, Jogging was very popular among those who decided to embark on the path of a healthy lifestyle. But there are a number of issues. Excessive shock load, which gets your joints (knee, ankle) and the spine while running is not conducive to the health of the body. Especially if the person neglects to outfit for the season and the right kind of shoes. Without proper cushioning, you can not avoid osteoarthritis or arthritis, and even aggravation “dozing” of a herniated disc!

You need to carefully approach the choice of coverage on which you decide to jog. Clearly unacceptable is the asphalt — it had the highest “impact index”. The tracks on sports grounds and stadiums often have a coating of a composite material and better springs, reducing “the load on the body.” Forest and other natural surfaces even softer, but you need to be careful in terms of the roots of trees and unexpected pits. The surface on the paths in the fitness clubs should be synthetic, it is necessary to check with a competent fitness instructor.

Another one of the “victims” run can be wanting to lose weight. Here excess weight during a workout overload and so weakened the joints and the back, additionally affects the blood vessels and heart, leading to arrhythmias and increased blood pressure.

Swimming is considered a safe sport. And it really solves a huge number of questions, if the person knows how to swim. Incorrect body position in the water, a violation of the swimming technique is a direct path to the aggravation of diseases of the spine.

The most common mistake is the body position in the water — shoulders above the water, neck arched back, head pointing up or even thrown back. During the voyage a person must be immersed in water, the cervical, thoracic and lumbar spine should be on the same line.

The next activity is crossfit. It combines “jerk” the power load and the output of the aerobic heart rate zone, which can lead to imbalance of the cardiovascular system and again to violations of the musculoskeletal device, until (!) protrusions and hernias of the spine, aggravation of pain in the knees and ankles. Crossfit love for quick results, but forget that the abrupt transition from geodinamicheskogo lifestyle to such an intense, rather undermining the reserves of the body. For the unprepared person is a huge stress.

Yoga last time, victoriously marching through the world, conquering more and more sports hearts. However, if the early instructors who teach this type of load was not enough, we all knew about them, were confident in the level of training and medical education, now a yoga centre can be found at almost every street who will have your back completely unknown, and therefore the consequences will not keep itself waiting. In case of incorrect performance of the asanas the load on the spine are inadequate, which leads to injury and pain syndrome.

In conclusion I can say that fitness is necessary, but it is better to take care of your safety and consult with your doctor on physiotherapy exercises and sports medicine. About many problems with our health we do not even suspect. Now the most common disease are or dorsopathy low back pain (the term modern doctors do not use). We start to work with 20-23 years in offices behind computers, as a rule, oblivious to the awkward position, after driving and then sit, time to exercise is not enough. However, after two or three years of such a regime is practically all there is stiffness and back pain — the first signs of dorsopathy.

Therefore, in order not to hurt yourself and not to fall out of the workflow in connection with emergency treatment, make exercise program with your doctor, he will talk about proper nutrition, opportunities to increase physical activity in your schedule life.

Don’t think fitness is easy, and the knowledge obtained from the Internet enough to check the health of strength. Please remember that in this question the safety and preservation of your health is first! And then — beauty.

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