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How to make a fitness program: theory and practice

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How to make a fitness program: theory and practice
The contents

  • Types of hypertrophy when strength exercise
  • Personal calculation of the indicators for fitness
  • Application of the theory in training

When developing a fitness program must consider not only the efficiency and convenience of exercise but also the processes that occur in the body under the influence of the exerted load. If the ultimate goal of training is to increase strength or growth in muscle mass, which is not always the same, then when you select the elements you should take into account the type of hypertrophy they give. Under hypertrophy understand the increase in the volume and mass of cells as a result of various factors.

Types of hypertrophy when strength exercise

There are two types of hypertrophy: myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic. The myofibrils represent the filamentary structure, and their circumference is 1-2 µm. They are responsible for the contraction of muscle cells with ATP. Change in myofibrillar character increases the number of contractile proteins — myosin and actin contained in the myofibrils. If you apply this knowledge to fitness, in practice it looks as follows: the athlete lifts a heavy weight, causing the muscle fibers to experience a new stress and improve contractility. Regular increased physical load from occupation to occupation allows to achieve a stronger hypertrophy of fast twitch muscle fibers. Happen the stronger the contraction the more weight the athlete can lift in the exercise.

Sarcoplasmic hypertrophy leads to increased sarcoplasm in muscle tissue. It is a nutrient surrounding myofibrillar fibers. It is composed of ATP, glycogen, water, and creatine phosphate. In the process of physical activity, aimed at sarcoplasmic hypertrophy increases the volume of fluid that enables the growth of muscle volume. This species is characterized by performing slow, controlled movements that keep your muscles prolonged stress, forcing the body to activate both types of muscle fibers, and fully depleting energy.

You need to understand that to increase muscle volume is not required myofibrillar hypertrophy, so big muscles does not involve the development of strength; and, at the same time, the strength can be significantly increased without much muscle growth.

In accordance with these varieties of hypertrophy it is possible to allocate two approaches to training:

  • Neuromuscular training.

Aimed at the inclusion of muscles with the Central nervous system, as well as increasing the number of contractile proteins in the myofibrils. At the core of the classroom is work with more weight, 85-100% of one approach with the highest weight (—1 PM). Movement perform fast, explosive way: one set accounts for 1 to 40 seconds. The break between sets can range from half to 5 minutes.

  • Metabolic training.

Aimed at the increase in energy substances in the muscle structure. In the classroom, take a small weight, relatively 60-75% of your 1 REP max. Motion perform in slow motion, keeping the target muscle under tension for 40-70 seconds. Break between sets lasts up to one minute.

It must be remembered that in the interval from 75% to 85% of your 1 REP max increase simultaneously both parameters.

Personal calculation of the indicators for fitness

To calculate 1RM, you can use different algorithms, for example, the formula of Hoffman or vatana. In addition, many online sites provide ready-made calculators, where you just need to enter their data to get the desired result.

To calculate the retention time of muscle under tension, allowing for varying hypertrophy, it is recommended to use one selected recurrence pattern.

  • When an athlete in one approach makes a small number of repetitions using weights that are close to the limit, physical activity is considered short term. In this case we can speak about the growth of strength through neuromuscular training.
  • When an athlete performs a large number of repetitions in one set, physical exercise is considered long-term; training apply small weights. In this case we can talk about metabolic nature classes aimed at increasing muscle volume.
  • By varying the number of repetitions in one approach and parameters 1RM, it is possible to determine the nature of fitness training. For example:

  • 1-5 repetitions 85-100% create myofibrillar nature. When using 5 iterations can be observed the increase of sarcoplasma.
  • 6-8 повторов75-85% are considered to be the perfect balance of strength training. Observed the addition of both indicators.
  • 9-12 repeats of 70-75% ask sarcoplasmic nature of the occupation, there is myofibrillar growth and a small increase endurance.
  • 13-15 repeats of a 65-70% increase the production of sarcoplasma slightly increase stamina and very little effect on the myofibrils.
  • More than 15 times and with a 65% increase stamina and stimulate the production of sarcoplasma.
  • It should be noted that the higher the iterations number, the more increases stamina, causing changes in the muscle tissue.

    Application of the theory in training

    To properly use the acquired knowledge in programming for fitness, it is necessary to consider some nuances and, above all, to determine the purpose of the trainings.

  • If the main task of the athlete puts the increase in strength, it is necessary to use such schemes approaches, such as 5 sets of 5 reps; 6 sets of 4 repetition; 8 sets of 3 repetition. Between repetitions you need to do long pauses of rest; the weight of the projectile is 85% of your 1 REP max. Training on the power of the chosen people, not focused on weight, they are recommended especially for beginners. Such programs will help to prepare the body for further work in mass.
  • If the primary goal of fitness is weight, training using a circuit 3 for 15, 4 for 12 and 5 for 9 reps with a short break between them. Burdening choose 65-70% of the 1RM, gradually increasing the percentage and lowering the number of iterations the following approach.
  • For combining weight and increase power performance you can use several schemes. For example, a typical program using 4 to 8, 5 to 7 or 6 for 6 repetitions rest 1 to 2 minutes between them. Weight of projectile for 8 reps 75%; less than 8 — 80-85%.

    Fitness classes can also be arranged so that work on the power and ground alternated a short period of time. For example:

    • 1 through 4 a week to use the scheme 3 for 15 with 65% of 1RM.
    • 5 through 8 a week to take 4 for 10 repetitions, 72% of the 1 RM.
    • From 9 to 12 a week to apply the scheme 5 for 5 with 85% of your 1 REP max.

    For training, you can use any of the program options, depending on what goals the athlete at the current time.

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    Uses photographs Shutterstock

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