Swimming and running, Cycling and skiing require the ability to perform monotonous physical work for a long time. This quality is called muscle endurance. Her promotion is a complex task requiring not only training resources, but also special recovery techniques. In professional sports, the period of endurance is roughly half of the annual cycle. At other times, the athletes work on speed, strength, and technique. In Amateur figure could increase to 2/3, because the newcomers come with a very weak performance. Endurance will be useful not only in sports but also in everyday life – to walk a few stops, climb on the 8th floor with no Elevator and walking with a child all day.
- 1 Everything you need to know
- 2 action Plan for guaranteed endurance
- 3 7 ways to improve endurance
- 3.1 1. Proper combination of training for strength and endurance
- 3.2 2. Perform strength exercises without rest
- 3.3 3. Keep it up
- 3.4 4. Make a “base”
- 3.5 5. Avoid adaptation
- 3.6 6. Perform hybrid exercises
- 3.7 7. Explosive exercises
- 4 As a beginner to improve stamina in running
- 4.1 Training the heart without shock loads
- 4.2 Consistency in training
- 4.3 long Run
- 4.4 high-intensity running
- 4.5 eat Right
- 4.6 Relax properly
- 4.7 Learn to preserve energy during the run
- 4.8 Mental concentration
Everything you need to know
Endurance depends on three parameters:
- The ratio of muscle fibers in the body of the athlete. Those athletes who have more “slow” fibers are more resilient by nature;
- VO2 max, or the rate of oxygen uptake is the parameter that measures how fast in the body are redox reactions. This option is laid down genetically, but is a train. High intensity interval training-type of alternating sprints and recovery of long sections, or even circuit training, help to increase this parameter;
- Lactate or anaerobic threshold is the parameter that determines at what load level the body of the athlete begins to accumulate lactate and muscle, “hide” and do not give mnogopotochnoy work with the same intensity. Work can be performed with high intensity for a long period of time, and then lactate threshold increases
All parameters of endurance are laid genetically, but they train. Endurance is used the training is very close to what is practiced in fitness for weight loss. This ratio circuit training, Jogging or other aerobic exercise with intensity from medium to high, and recovery sessions.
Is it possible to improve the readiness of the muscles to vynoslivost work? Frankly, the ratio of fibers to change is not possible, but the athlete is able to develop “slow” fibers with the help of regular exercise.
Action plan for guaranteed endurance
To talk about the development of physical qualities is possible only if training, nutrition and rest consolidated in a rational plan, which allows the use of all elements of the system. Usually problems arise with endurance athletes who try to gain or maintain muscle mass, or seriously to lose weight.
If the goal is to develop athletic qualities, recomposition body, weight loss, and “pumping” lagging muscle groups need to be set aside on the second plan. Endurance like quality recovery, good nutrition, and a moderately active lifestyle.
- Full stay. This is not a workout for weight loss when you want to move every day. If the goal is to increase endurance and athleticism, should rest on days when not training. Think about something like sauna and massage, and not about long walks, Hiking and activity in nature. Too many non-training load can lead to the disturbance of regenerative processes.
- Eat for recovery. If the usual fitness by “proper nutrition” understand the control of carbohydrate consumption, more than is customary in traditional nutrition, the amount of protein and increase the amount of vegetables and fruits in the diet, to increase endurance, it will be necessary to raise the amount of carbohydrates. Usually an hour of exercise is recommended 50-60 g “above the norm”. We are talking about net carbs. Because athletes who can’t eat any more, use recovery drinks, and special gels. Under normal conditions, residual use about 5-6 grams of carbohydrates per 1 kg of body weight to satisfy their needs in recovery. Is there a way not to lose muscle mass too fast? Most sources state that the athletes must eat more than 1 g of protein per 1kg of body weight. In professional sports increase the dosage to 2 a Significant part of norms is best consumed in the form of amino acids.
- Alternate work on endurance and power. Power work for running, Cycling or swimming is high intensity interval training. Classic HIIT workout is 30 seconds work with a maximum speed alternating with 1-2 minutes recovery workout at a low heart rate.
- Add weight training. For endurance combines classic basic exercises. Methodological approaches two. Squat, bench press, lunges, pull-UPS, standing press and deadlifts are used exclusively in the power mode 3-5 reps in 4-5 business approaches, mnogopotochnoy work is excluded. Such a power cycle serves to strengthen the ligaments, bones, and increase power and power factors. In sport he practiced in the offseason and helps to gain endurance when the training becomes more specialized. Beginners and non-professional athletes can start with very small weights. The second methodological approach is to try using strength training to increase the consumption of oxygen by muscles. Then exercises are combined in cycles and are performed without rest. This training allows you to get rid of quick fatigue, and the feeling that while you work not enough air.
- Eliminate weaknesses. Running uphill allows to increase speed on a flat surface. Workout of alternating sprints and Jogging at normal speed – it is better to run the mountainous area. The use of soil, sand, earth will help to gain power and to run well on asphalt. Its weaknesses need to know, and to be addressed through a specially-preparatory exercises. For the marathon it can be run with a different slant, by alternating coatings, or special exercises like vybaveni with rubber, or running the stairs.
- Listen to the music. Music not only allows you to keep pace because of the rhythm but also improves mood. Good music allows you to train fully and emotionally invested in every training session.
- The beet juice. Consumption of this drink not only helps to increase the content of vitamin C in the body, to saturate the body with antioxidants and get more carbohydrates, but also to fight fatigue. There is sound scientific evidence that beet juice improves endurance by 16%. Many professional marathon runners pre-race dinner of pasta with beet juice and show good results.
- Rational training. The approach “do more at any cost” is not applicable in practice. To give standing only once during the macrocycle in responsible competitions. The rest of the time the load should be distributed so that the athlete approached the training fresh and actively restored in free from training time.
7 ways to improve endurance
Trail running race with obstacles, marathons and road races from a short distance away are a popular entertainment for the mass of athletes. People are moving away from club fitness in favor of the more athletic classes, allowing to develop sport skills and to obtain higher loads.
Participation in Amateur track events and triathlons require a lot of endurance. Often, beginners start to run, swim or pedal to exhaustion, but it’s not helping with your endurance. The reason is simple lack of strength. Muscles do not work in the “vynoslivost”, and “power” mode. The “cure” is very simple – it is necessary to combine different types of training in the program and do not forget about strength training.
Coach runners, preparing for the “Race of Heroes”, will Torres notes that an important common physical characteristics and not just pure endurance. If the legs are strong, to run any adventure race can be much simpler than when power indicators are not trained. Torres has developed 7 principles, knowledge, and the combination of which allow for improvement of results in running, swimming, Cycling and adventure races.
1. Proper combination of training for strength and endurance
Torres claims that fans of racing, more suitable training crossfit-style, not the classic muscle pumps in the gym. He offers to combine heavy presses, pulls, pull-UPS mode at 70-80% of maximum odnoprovodnoi and exercises on power endurance, for example, running with a maximum speed at a distance of about one kilometer. Need to pick up a few complexes that would allow to recover for a treadmill workout the next day. Typically, strength training is not a priority, because of doing not more than 2-3 times a week and try to do as short as possible. Complexes can take at least with the home page crossfit.com though to think of yourself. Torres offers to alternate a minute of pull-UPS, a minute of bench press and running for 1 km or minute of exercise with a rope, and squat, the military press standing, and twisting on a press.
2. Perform strength exercises without rest
Endurance training is different from the pure power that the intervals for rest be as short as possible. If the usual training we rest or 30-90 seconds, or until full recovery, these complexes have to do to complete muscular failure, when the breath goes astray, and the muscles are burning so that there is no way to continue. Torres offers to re-complex of 10 bench presses, squats, pull-UPS and sit-UPS at the press as much as is physically possible.
3. Keep it up
High execution speed strength exercises is a good way to not only improve endurance but also maintain muscle. This allows you to actively progress in running and adventure races. The pace was easiest to hold under the account or performing exercises under the cheerful and active music.
4. Make a “base”
Basic exercises allow you to use more muscles, contribute to the development of power, and do not give too fast to lose muscle mass. Of course, isolating the movement easier to do, if the muscle is loaded or there is an injury, but for the development of General endurance regional training is not very useful. He has another goal – prevention of injury and movement correction.
5. Avoid adaptation
The body adapts to the typical exercises on endurance the fastest. If the growth of performance we need 12 weeks on a fairly uniform plan of basic exercises with a minimum switching isolation training, then endurance will have to alternate movements. Torres encourages cyclists to start Cycling “ladders”, for the runners to swim, and so on. If included in your plan 1-2 workouts in the style of “cross-training”, the body will not have time to adapt and the results will be higher.
6. Perform hybrid exercises
The simplest hybrid exercise is lunges with simultaneous lifting of the dumbbells on a biceps, and front squats with the bench press bar up. These movements involve many muscles, and well allow you to improve endurance, if you include them in a training program in megapotions mode.
7. Explosive exercises
In the professional training of athletes, athletes plyometric or explosive exercises occupy an important place. They contribute not only to development speed, but also allow to retain muscle mass, have better body composition and to develop stamina. Plyometrics starts with simple jumps out of the squat, you can progress to zapihivanie on the curb. The plyometrics can be performed in the push-UPS, and other movements.
As a beginner to improve stamina in running
Newcomers have two problems – weak results due to the lack of experience, and high risk of injury. Both are derived from a small training experience, and modest muscle development. Is much easier for those runners who came from other sports or fitness. Often beginners try to spend a large amount of workouts without proper recovery, and “chase” the high tempo of training, and too long duration of training. All this leads to congestion and injuries, and not to the high sport results. Beginners should do opposite things – smoothly increase endurance, to gain technical skills, and strengthen muscles to avoid injuries.
Exercise the heart without shock loads
The big problem of running is increased load on the musculoskeletal system and joints. Novice runners often do too much and get cumulative trauma at a very early stage of his career. This can be avoided if to use its training methods to increase aerobic endurance without shock.
To reduce the shock load on the musculoskeletal system can be, if you do on the elliptical trainer, running in the water, or to pedal the bike or treager. The elliptical machine is used in the rehabilitation of injured triathletes, and in the training of fitnessista, but novice runners ignore it. In fact, enough to keep the speed above 90 steps per minute, and aerobic capacity will be significant. One cross-training on elliptical machine a week will allow not only to preserve joints and ligaments, but also to strengthen the back muscles and the upper shoulder girdle.
The use of running water in the training programme allows you to combine speed and power work. Start to run with shallow water, at knee level, and then to go deeper, and use more “power” running. The advantage is that water supports the body and spine obespechivaetsya also decreased the impact load on the knees and ankles. Running in the water, it is important to keep the pace of 150 steps per minute, so the workout was not too easy.
The use of a stationary bike or a regular bike – classic endurance training. When a person treadles, his biceps thighs, and quadriceps are active, but the spine and joints aren’t overloaded.
Cross-training was not intended to replace a workout, but to Supplement them, to enable them to get more aerobic exercise without the risk of overtraining and overload of the joints.
Consistency in training
Consistent training should be consistent with the combination of adequate stress and recovery. Exercise for 30 minutes 3-4 times a week is quite sufficient for a beginner volume. How to progress? Over time, you will need to reduce the intensity of training and increase the volume, i.e. the time under load and the size of the traversed distance. This approach allows not only to improve running technique, but also to avoid injuries. Beginners also need to practice 1 training in the style of “cross-training” in a week, and not to forget the strength work.
The continuity of effort allows you to build up endurance for running is much better than working on the limit. Beginners quickly progress, therefore, the increase in traversed distance of 2-4 km a week may be an adequate measure of progress. But experienced coaches are recommended to progress consistently and exclusively due to the gradual increase of the load. Do not have to add the proverbial 2 km of distance every week, you need to monitor health and to focus on him too. But the goal should be progress, not the simple passage of the same distance from week to week.
Beginners should not get carried away tempo workouts and boost your progress. Even with a modest mileage the risk of injury if you train at maximum speeds too high.
Do not forget about the importance of the work force. It will help to avoid injury, and will be a good stepping stone for high-speed performance in the future. Beginners can perform power exercises with your own body weight running after the main workout or visit the gym a couple times a week.
Basic exercises for the runner is :
- Squat with different production stop and the rod on his back, on the chest, above the head;
- Dead lift or deadlift from the floor if there is a physical possibility. Many do not recommend the movement on the phase of lowering, and suggest only to raise the bar, and then drop to the platform;
- Pullups with weight and without, beginners can perform the “Australian” option when feet are on the floor, and his chest touches the crossbar;
- Standing press (military) and lying, the latter is often ignored, but absolutely nothing, as it not only develops the shoulder girdle, but also allows you to use his legs and core muscles;
- Strap and twisting the press – contribute to the stabilization of the center of the body;
- Attacks – basic “utility” exercise, running trains endurance and power at the same time.
Do I need to do isolation exercises for legs in the gym? Depends on the condition of the athlete, and develop his muscles. Most Western trainers does not recommend it, except that the warm-up in flexion and extension in the knee with an elastic band.
The success of the runner depends on how he is consistent in the long term. Neglect strength training leads to constant pain, and does not realized as an athlete. Therefore, strength training should be no less regular than Jogging. But the peculiarity lies in the fact that the recovery should be complete and overlapping reduction processes is not acceptable.
The basis for the growth of endurance is a plan that combines cross-training, cross country workouts and strength work, quite balanced, and any specific lifter on the load level.
You need to understand that the increase in toughness does not happen overnight. Popular sources of fitness say you need about 10 days to run came to fruition. But this is only cheerfulness and good mood. To prepare for a marathon in 10 days will not work. The nature of long distance is that they will always feel heavy to pass. But fortunately, they become easier if you regularly practice endurance training.
How long will it take to make from scratch to run long distance? Be weeks and months that endurance you have built up. Most people will spend about 10 months ago to run the half marathon or marathon. Much importance has, what way of life was to prepare, and what people were doing in parallel with my sports career. The level of stress in everyday life is important, but underestimate him. Many are unable to run effectively due to the presence of multidirectional tasks at work and in life.
Before starting your regular workout, you need to honestly assess your level. Who are you, the man who came running to boost your level of activity, and not able to run 5 km, or quite experienced athlete who converted to running from another sport? Keep this in mind when planning.
Distance not win, if there is no skills in the long run. Most experts believe that too much increase in the duration of running can lead to overtraining and injury, but there are adequate options. For example, if every week to increase the duration of workout in just 10 minutes, and to run during this time of 1-2 km, in a year you can prepare for a marathon. Of course, some weeks will be dropped from the process, because progress may not be linear. But trying to improve still need.
High-intensity running is passing the same course, as usual, but with higher speed. Beginners can shorten the distance, but not at the expense of speed. This option allows the run to get rid of problems with the ligaments and joints, stiffness, and slow pace. Techniques to increase the intensity of running are not only enabling high-speed lines, or faster pace at the usual distance. The athlete can concentrate on the run on unusual surfaces such as sand or soil, and it’s not too often, for example, 1-2 times a week. Many prefer to run the stairs up and down to increase the intensity of your workout. Often used running uphill.
For good progress in running you need to more than 55 and up to 60% of the daily energy value was accounted for by carbohydrates. It is preferable to obtain it from such sources as brown rice, pasta from durum wheat, buckwheat, oats, millet. Carbohydrate energy is the fuel for muscles, it should not be enough. Is it possible to have a sweet, fruit and simple carbohydrates? Yes, this is a promising source, but to avoid dips in energy levels, it is recommended to make the basis of the diet are not simple, and complex carbohydrates. How many can you eat sweets? It is advisable to follow a healthy minimum, this food does not contains many nutrients and is not conducive to recovery. It only raises the “moral” of the athlete.
Within half an hour after a workout you need to eat foods rich in carbohydrates. This will help the recovery. But more important healthy sleep, it allows you to efficiently recover after a workout and have normal hormone levels, despite a serious workout. A minimum of 8 hours of sleep, a cool shower, and stretching help to establish recovery.
Learn to keep power while running
Running technique – not an empty phrase. It is not only a means of preventing injuries, but also way more effective to go any distance. Worth learning to maintain the correct posture, a neutral and a vertical back, and the pace of the order of 120-180 steps per minute. If own weight is too large, training may be too heavy, even at moderate volume. Most coaches run recommends lose weight before people start serious training.
Just enough to fool yourself to run not just longer, but on. Our brain is so arranged that each figure may cause him overreacting. But once you start to submit those 13 miles as just a normal run in 10 plus another 3 km cool-down at a free rate, and you run the race confident.
So work on mental focus, improving relaxation, sleep recovery, and your workouts will necessarily be effective.